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Schizophrenia: Meaning, Treatment, Symptoms, Causes & Types

Schizophrenia is often seen as synonymous to the inability of being able to understand what is real. Schizophrenia is a highly intricate mental disorder in which one undergoes through several hallucinations, chimeras and unorganized thoughts and sees, hears and feels things that are not even there. It can really affect how one talks and behaves with others. It can fill one’s life with confusion and suspicion making him/her paranoid and withdrawn.


Schizophrenia generally occurs in the last phase of adolescence or the early phase of adulthood. Symptoms of schizophrenia are most commonly observed in between the ages of 16-30. Here are a few common symptoms of schizophrenia:

  1. Hallucinations and delusions
  2. Hearing unreal voices
  3. Withdrawal from social activities
  4. Emotional turbulence
  5. Believing in the possession of some sort of special or super powers
  6. Unreasonable anger
  7. Frequent furiousness on friends or family
  8. Repetitive suicidal thoughts and activities
  9. Disorganized thoughts and speech
  10. Irritable bowel movements
  11. Irrational statements, thoughts or beliefs
  12. Dearth of motivation
  13. Inadequate or over sleeping
  14. Unfitting laughter

Types of Schizophrenia

There are five types of schizophrenia. They are as follows:

1) Paranoid Schizophrenia

Paranoid Schizophrenia

This is the most common type of schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia is characterized with hallucinations that are auditory and also certain kinds of delusions. People affected with this kind of schizophrenia generally exhibit anger and hostility. This kind of schizophrenia is generally detected at later stages because people affected with paranoid schizophrenia are generally with normal intellect and behaviour.

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2) Catatonic Schizophrenia

Catatonic schizophrenia is further divided into two categories: catatonic stupor and catatonic excitement. Catatonic stupor refers to a histrionic lessening in the level of activities and leaving it to the verge of extinction. Whereas catatonic excitement is often escorted with hyperactivity and also occurrence of stereotypic behavior.

3) Disorganized Schizophrenia

Disorganized Schizophrenia

This generally affects the ability of the person to think logically and often culminates into disorganized or inappropriate thoughts and actions. Symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia would include switching from one topic to other constantly during a conversation or doing activities that don’t make sense like wearing multiple layers on a hot day.

4) Residual Schizophrenia

This kind of schizophrenia generally occurs in those who have had a history of schizophrenia and with time the frequency and intensity of their schizophrenia symptoms have reduced.

5) Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

As the name suggests the symptoms of this kind of schizophrenia are not undistinguished. People affected with undifferentiated schizophrenia generally exhibit symptoms that are common to not one but many kinds of schizophrenia. And that is why it is not possible to categorize them as under any one kind of schizophrenia. Such kind of people finds their place in the category of undifferentiated schizophrenia.

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Causes of Schizophrenia

Though a lot of research has been put into schizophrenia but still the actual causes of schizophrenia haven’t come to the light yet. Although it is believed that a combination of certain psychological, environmental, genetic and physical factors cause schizophrenia. Here are some of the factors that can lead to this deadly disorder:

1) Genes are considered to be the outlines of your bodies. They hold a lot of essential information that makes up your bodies. If anyone in your family is suffering from schizophrenia then probability of you having schizophrenia also increases. But in most of the cases genetic changed and mutation occurs in a way that despite of no family history, one can get affected with schizophrenia.


2) Improper nutrition from a mother when she is pregnant with her baby can make the baby prone to schizophrenia. Also if during that phase, the baby gets exposed to viral infections, it can also make the baby vulnerable to schizophrenia.

3) Unusual brain characteristics like huge ventricles, trivial memory lobes, and inapt connections between brain cells, difference in brain chemicals or the neurotransmitters are also often associated with schizophrenia. So a problem with any of these can also be the cause to schizophrenia.

4) Harmful drugs like marijuana etc can reward you with delusions and hallucinations. High duration and frequency of such drugs can also be one of the causes to get affected by schizophrenia.

5) Mind varying drugs like psychoactive or psychotropic drugs can also be one of the causes to schizophrenia.

Treatment of Schizophrenia

Though at present there is no straight jacket solution or cure present for schizophrenia but this illness can be treated and managed well. Here are some ways to treat schizophrenia:

1) First of all you need to understand that running away is not a solution. Accept your diagnosis and consult your doctor. Get indulged into self-help and treatment.

2) Seek help from your family members and friends, support services in your areas and try meeting new people by joining schizophrenia support groups or getting involved in organizations nearby.

Seek help from your family members and friends

3) Manage your stress effectively and don’t let it ruin your happy moments

4) Take a proper balanced diet and a healthy sound sleep. Also try and avoid alcohol and drugs.

5) Take medicines that can cure the symptoms of schizophrenia under the supervision of a doctor. Never stop them without his/her advice.

This was all about schizophrenia that one should know. Remember no battle is bigger enough to pull you down, not even schizophrenia.

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About Anirudh Singh

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